What Was The French Monarchy Replaced By, During The French Revolution?


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Dan Banks answered
The French monarchy was replaced by what was called the 'Committee of Public Safety' - a highly ironic name considering this 'government' was responsible for the deaths of as many as 40,000 people during the Reign of Terror.

The Committee was a dictatorship, which had absolute power over all domestic and foreign policies.

The Jacobins
Louis XVI was executed in January 1793 and later on, during the same year, the Committee was established.

Following the defeat of the Girondists (moderate republicans who hailed from the Gironde region of France), the Jacobins (who were radical republicans) took power of the Committee.

The most notorious Jacobins were Maximilien de Robespierre, Saint-Just and Georges Couthon. 

The Committee of Public Safety
The Committee was established to fill the power vacuum left by the destruction of the monarchy, and was also designed to protect the revolution from external attacks by foreign forces and internal counter-revolutionary groups.

It used this role as a mandate to carry out the Reign of Terror - the immediate execution by guillotine of anyone who was suspected of being anti-revolutionary.

Georges Danton was the first President of the Committee, but he was executed and replaced by Robespierre - who was a Jacobin and a radical exponent of the Reign of Terror. He too was eventually executed by supporters of the Thermidorian reaction - which was a revolt against the Reign of Terror.

After Robespierre's execution in 1794, the Committee of Public Safety was disestablished in 1795. It was first succeeded by the Directory, and then by Napoleon's Consulate.

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