The following are all examples of public resources the government funds through taxation:
Benefits for people in need (unemployed, disabled, veterans etc...)
Taxation can also be used as a tool to empower the government and allow it to control aspects of the economy.
For example, taxation on import goods allows the government to subsidize or reduce taxation on domestic goods.
Setting rates of income tax so that the poorer half of the country pay less than those better off allows the government to influence the distribution of wealth.