Tough question because I'm not sure any of the options fit the bill.
The only 2 that might make sense grammatically-speaking are "humanism" and "egoism".
You could add "autocracy" to that list if the word "autocrat" was a typo...
However, I'd hesitate to say that any of the above apply to the progress that African nations have made since the days of colonial rule.
Humanism, in modern terms, usually relates to philosophy with a sense of increased value in humanity - as opposed to theological value. These type of societies tend to be secular, and less-dependent on religion.
I don't think many African states can currently describe themselves as humanist to be honest. Religion plays a huge part in many former colonies.
Egoism refers to an inflated sense of self importance. I've seen nothing to suggest that African nations have this as a prevailing theme.
Autocracy is a form of government in which a single person (often supported by a small group that hold either wealth or status) make all the decisions in a country.
Arguably, this could be a term that might apply to certain African states - but the wording of the question would suggest a more positive "achievement".
This leads me to think that something like Autonomy might be a more appropriate word.
It means to self-govern or enjoy sovereign rights, and could very easily be used to describe the progress that many African states have made since colonial times.