How were the ancient Sumerians ingenious and resourceful?


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Natalie Holeman Profile
Natalie Holeman answered

Though I personally question all the things attributed as originating with the Sumerians, here are a few things mainstream archeology currently attributes to them.  Basically mainstream archeology considers the Sumerians the first permanent society and therefore attributes many wonders to them.  Even if first permanent society I think many of these concepts predate them.

Formal laws (rule of written law)
First culture to have a written language.
First culture to develop agriculture (plow and irrigation).
Specialized society (people with individual trades/duties)
Specialized tools
Formalized religion.
Potters wheel.
Wheel used for transportation.
Bookkeeping for trade.
Record keeping for history.
Mathematics (algebra and geometry primarily for astronomy and agriculture) based on base 60 (still use today for clocks, navigation, and geometry (360 degree circle).
Water clocks
Metalworking (smelting and forging)
Architecture (maybe size and scale but suspect predated Sumerians)
Music (lyre, reed pipe, tambourine, drums -- I really suspect several of these were in use before the Sumerians)
thanked the writer.
Natalie Holeman
Natalie Holeman commented
Jewels, I am not ignoring anything. I personally believe organized societies with individual specialization goes back FAR before Sumer as brassware has been found in Southeast Asia (forgive me, I have forgotten when, where, or even the article, I read it in) dating back an estimated 25,000 years. The fact that the brassware was ornate suggests an organized society and that probably the manufacturer was not the user. At the very least, they were neither a nomadic society nor living in caves. Also in graves from the first Mehrgahr period dating between 7500 and 9,000 years ago, an individual was found to have received 11 fillings of their teeth with crowns on them. Dentistry is definitely a skill for an organized specialized society.

As to my answer, I assume the person is asking the question for some sort of school project (summer school???), so am basing my answer on what current archeology STATES and for some reason they roll all the wonders beginning with Sumer as if it were strictly their technology and based on nothing previous. Indeed, officially nothing did exist previously.

Please note that according to Wikipedia, the civilization the built Mohenjo Daro only started about 5000 years ago (after Sumer 6-7000 years ago) and did not build the city until about 4500 years ago. That is the opinion of most archeologists.

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