A-bombs and nuclear bomd are the same. However there is a difference. A-bombs are not produced by America since it is a smaller bomb then the newer thermo- nuclear bombs we DO produce. As for the heat of a nuclear bomb or A-bomb that can only be estimated since in the after-math of Hiroshima and Nagasaki most people and buildings were vaporised. They say its the same as the sun. Nuclear bombs are measured by the the equivalent explosive force of TNT. An A-bomb is the same as 500,000 tons of TNT and uses the fission process of detonation. The newer thermo-nuclear bombs are the same as 50,000,000 tons of TNT and use hydrogen detonation. So getting a temperature reading in the second or two it takes to go bang is almost impossible, not to forget it also is illegal to test these weapons now. Oh and since they vaporise everything near the explosion you might find it hard to do that too. Now how loud they are? I do know that they can be heard past 500 miles away. The French use to test nuclear weapons in the Pacific Ocean and they could be heard very far away.
Close...Hiroshima was about a 13 Kilotons TNT equivalent blast, all Uranium bomb called "Little Boy" with about a mile radius...the "Fat Man" Plutonium bomb over Nagasaki was about 21 Kilotons and hot as 7,000 degrees Fahrenheit with over 600 mph concussion waves, but even that wouldn't be very loud 500 miles away! Those fission bombs where later used to trigger Hydrogen Fusion Megaton size ones that required "Sun-like" temperatures to ignite, but I believe we still make small "tactical" Fission bombs.
Hot loud and big