Both have executive branch (President/Governor and their cabinet), legislative branch (US House of Representatives /U.S Senate, state House and Senate), and Judaical U.S. And state Supreme courts and lower courts. And they function pretty much in the same manner. They both are contained and regulated to the constitution. The U.S constitution and each state has a state constitution. Both maintain a military. The states military is the national guard. Both have many of the same cabinet departments part of the executive branch. The U.S has a dept of Agriculture, Attorney General, Dept of Transportation, Internal Revenue service, FBI. Most states also have those as well as other similar departments.