You will find that it is most probably a German number that has tried to ring you.
According to an online resource +37 used to belong to the German Democratic Republic or East Germany; however, the country code was discontinued. It was used until 1992. At that time Germany became +49. It is possible that the +37 was used for something else. For example you may have missed a number such as +378, 379, 376, 375, etc.
The 37 is still used by Germany, but there is always a third number to that series. For example +374 is for MD in Germany. +372 is for EE in Germany. The letters are unexplained as to what they mean.
[Note from another user: +372 is the country code for Estonia (assigned in Jan 1993), which is indicated as EE (ISO code for Estonia & the TLD for Estonia)].
- Other possibilities
Given the 37 start it will still be a Germany number even though Germany also uses the 49. It can also be such things as Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Moldova, Armenia, Nagorno, Belarus, Andorra, Monaco, Kosovo, San Marino, or Vatican City. All of these locations also use a 37 to start and then continue on with a number after it such as the 0 through 9.
For example Vatican City has been assigned +379, but they use +39. Given that there are different uses and different codes, any of the places named including Germany may be using the +37. Also, the article examined may not be aware if the +37 has been put back into use as a two digit option for mobile phones.
- Ask your local phone company
The information provided here is what was found on many of the country code websites that exist. You can also try asking your local phone company if they are aware of what country the code might belong to.