I suppose the most significant outcome is the establishment of Israel. The horror we all felt at the Holocaust demanded that something should be done and Israel has flourished in a land that withered under Arab neglect. The envy, and the religious hatred that grew from that is unlikely ever to be resolved.
The problems are not all on one side, of course, but Israel's need to defend themselves against savage neighbours -- and their success in doing so -- has only added to the hatred directed at them.
There were other border realignments that continue to create tension and bloodshed. One of the lesser known adjustments was the Finnish border when the Finns took the opportunity to side with Hitler and kick out the Russians. They were quickly defeated and the border re-drawn, but it's said that Stalin placed his thumb on the page, forcing the cartographer to draw the border around it, thus securing the mineral-rich Finnish territory for the USSR.